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Nanoscience As A Platform For Innovation In Information Technology
The continuation of the digitalization will draw on the development of information technology. Here two complementary lines are bottom-up and top-down approaches. In additive bottom-up process we use 0-dimensional, 1-dimensional and 2-dimensional structures, such as nanoparticles, nanotubes, graphene, and the devices are nanosensors, photodetectors, special transistors, non-volatile memories, spin valves, etc. An overview is provided by the road map of the EU Graphene flagship project. In subtractive top-down technology, the key is nanolithographic patterning with nanometer-scale lateral dimensions. Electron beam lithography, which has demonstrated minimum features <10 nm wide, continues to be developed both for exposition mask making and for direct writing on the semiconductor wafer. Extreme ultraviolet lithography is currently the official front runner in mass production. The alternate nanolithography techniques, such as nanoimprint or dip-pen lithography, are discussed as well. The framework of the paper are projections on the timeline, which summarizes the milestones of nanoscience since 1950, and on the dimensional axis, which points to the boundary between the nano- and pico-regions at 1 nm.